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Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Guam Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming
Disclaimer: Keep in mind as you read through these pages of the survey results that what is reported is only what was reported in this survey by people who voluntarily responded. It does not include any information from other older published maps and sources that are being used for the larger map project. This is new source material that came entirely from the survey.
On May 1, 2019, a crowdsourced survey was launched with the hopes of filling in some blanks of the history of where immigrant Germans from Russia and their subsequent generations settled in the United States. While there had been some previous research on this topic, it was nearly 50 years old and focused on the immigrant and first generation descendants from the Volga and Black Sea. Little substantial research had been done since to expand beyond those two well-known areas, or to continue the story to the present day.
The results of the Germans from Russia in America Survey are in and tabulated. There were 604 responses to the survey. They came from the U.S., Canada, Germany, Mexico, England and Ukraine. Their responses generated 8,248 lines of unique data by generation and location. In total, there were 1,950 places reported.
Many reported on places outside of the U.S. Those places will be used for future map projects and combined with other surveys. Many states were reported just as states with no post office, township, census-designated place, town, city, etc. reported. Some were reported as states and counties, but, again, no specific place. That information, while interesting, was not granular enough to use for mapping purposes. As much as possible was extracted from each response in terms of mappable places, generations, religions and Germans from Russia origins.
The survey itself was not scientific. It was completely opened ended, which allowed anyone who responded to answer with as much or as little information as they wanted to share using any language or terms they were comfortable with. There were no mandatory fields that had to be filled out in order to submit a response. Participation was entirely voluntary and could be completely anonymous. Little targeting was done to promote responses. The survey was simply sent out in to the wild (social media) for genealogists discover and do what they do best: talk about their families.
The respondents to the survey were people who were actively researching their family's Germans from Russia history. All seemed to have a sincere interest in getting their family's information on the map. Some respondents knew a lot about their family's location history and provided a lot of detail. Some did not know much and said that they wished they knew more. Everyone was proud of their hard working ancestors, of their history and their heritage, even those who had just learned about it a few years ago.
To view the data state-by-state, use the directory at the top of the page and click on the state of interest.
For each place reported, the table shows the following information:
State – This is the current state. If Germans from Russia resided in a place before it joined the Union, then a note about the territory name is included.
Place – This is the name of the place. A place could be a city, town, census-designated place, unincorporated place, a historical township, a post office, a homestead (if that was where the post office was) or a cemetery (if that is all that is left). Places that no longer exist are included.
Earliest Year Reported – This is the earliest year of German-Russian habitation recorded from all of the responses.
Germans from Russia Origins – This records several pieces of information:
- The generations that were reported to have lived in a place (immigrant and first, second, third, fourth and fifth generation descendants).
- The regions within Russia from which they came (Bessarabia, Black Sea, Congress Poland, Volga, Volhynia, etc.).
- The reported religion of the immigrant generation.
- The colony name and, in some cases, the enclave or colony group name in parenthesis for a preceding number of colonies listed. Many German colonies in different regions in Russia that had the same name, so differentiating them using the colony group was necessary.
Nearly all of the ancestral colonies reported are on the Germans from Russia Settlement Locations map. Absent were some places in Volhynia and several in Congress Poland that were outside the known Vistula colonies. All of these will be added to the map.
Each state links to a spreadsheet of the data that will feed into the map. The spreadsheets were done in Google Sheets, but you do not need a Google account to view them or to download them in the format of your choice (.xls, pdf, etc). The data is free for anyone to use. Kindly cite where you got it, and by all means, have fun with it. Talk about it. Build on it. Share it. Create new projects from it. A few that come to mind are youth history and geography projects, state and local history projects, projects that track the migrations of one specific group (descendants from the Kutschurgan colonies, the Volga, Bessarabia, etc.), genealogy society projects (local chapters may want to expand on what was found in this study), etc.
There are more detailed summaries of the data set as a whole in the sections below if you'd like to read them. A full summary will be done once the entire map is complete using all the sources listed on the Research page of this site.
By the late 1800s into the early 1900s when many Germans from Russia emigrated, the Russia Empire was huge, spanning from the Baltic Sea to the Sea of Japan. The Germans who lived in the Russian Empire have many stories of movement, most of which fall into four categories: immigration, migration, occupation and/or deportation. Germans immigrated to Russia by some sort of invitation (the manifestos of Catherine the Great or Alexander I, wealthy land owners from Volhyhia needing farmers, a need for specific skills in Poltava to deal with Napoleon's advance, etc.). They migrated elsewhere in Russia when land became scarce to where there were more opportunities (Siberia, Central Asia, the interior governorates, etc.). For some, they woke one morning to find that their country was occupied by or been ceded to Russia (the partitions of Poland, Dobrudscha, Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, etc.). And some were deported to Russia during World War I, or elsewhere in the Soviet Union in World War II.
The simplest definition of a German from Russia is an ethnic German who lived under Russian rule at any point. The Germans from Russia Settlement Locations project has always been about inclusion of all Germanic groups who lived in Russia. It does not matter when or how they got there.
Broken down further into more well known groups of Germans from Russia, the survey reported they came from Germans colonies groups in the following regions: Asiatic Russia; Bessarabia; Black Sea; Caucasus and Don; Congress (Russian) Poland; Dobrudscha; Volga; and Volhynia.
In short, they came from places between modern-day Latvia and Kazakhstan.
Tsar Alexander II revoked the Codex of the Colonists in 1871 and declared mandatory military conscription in 1872. Right on schedule, the earliest immigration year reported to the U.S. in the survey was 1872. The German immigrant came from Torun in Congress Poland (also known as Russian Poland) near the Vistula settlements. They settled in Watertown, Wisconsin.
The latest immigrant arrivals reported were both in 1957. Both came from places in the Volga (Frank and Saratov). One settled in Lincoln, Nebraska and the other in Chicago, Illinois. Both immigrated through Germany to the U.S. There were several reports of immigration to the U.S. through other countries including Argentina, China and Germany/East Prussia/Weimar Republic. Some reported being in the U.S. a short time before they moved on to Canada.
According the the survey, arrivals of immigrant Germans from Russia individuals or families were as follows:
- Between 1872 and 1879 – 64 arrivals
- Between 1889 and 1889 – 50 arrivals
- Between 1890 and 1899 – 84 arrivals
- Between 1900 and 1909 – 187 arrivals
- Between 1910 and 1919 – 135 arrivals*
- Between 1920 and 1929 – 10 arrivals
- Between 1930 and 1939 – 2 arrivals**
- Between 1940 and 1949 – 0 arrivals***
- Between 1950 and 1959 – 12 arrivals****
*There were no reports of immigrant Germans from Russia arriving between 1916 and 1921 during the Russian Revolution.
**There were no reports of immigrant Germans from Russia (Soviet Union) arriving after 1931 during the Holodomor.
***There were no reports of immigrant Germans from Russia (Soviet Union) arriving during World War II and immediately after.
****There were no arrivals reported in the survey between 1932 and 1951.
Upon arrival to their final destination where the railway or the wagon trail ended, some immigrant Germans from Russia put down deep roots where they landed with up to five generations of their descendants still living today in or near that same place. Others began moving around. Some of us are still moving.
Places in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and the Territory of Guam were reported.
As I went through each response and normalized the information given, whenever I encountered a place that was just sure no one else has reported, I would find it on my life. I would think, “Ah, you were not alone.”
The states/district/territory with the least places reported were DC, Guam, Rhode Island, Vermont and West Virginia with just one place each. (I was anticipating neighborhoods to be reported in Washington, DC, but they weren't.)
The state with the most places reported was California, which caused some rumbling on social media when it was first reported. How could it possibly have more places reported? California has been well documented as a state where immigrant Germans from Russia settled very early on, since 1886 according to Karl Stumpp. He reported that by the 1920 census, there were 11,529 immigrant (born in Russia) and 1st generation descendants (children of those born in Russia either born in Russia also or in the U.S.) living in California. The Depression, the Dust Bowl and WWII prompted moves from hard hit states in the midwest to California in the 1930s and 1940s. Among those who uprooted and went west were descendants of Germans from Russia who had initially settled in other states. It appears many stayed in California. The survey reports on six generations of Germans from Russia and their descendants, spanning approximately 150 years, so it makes sense that California would be well represented at this point in history.
Below is a decade-by-decade look at the number of places in each state/territory that Germans from Russia (all generations) lived. The states/territories in bold at the earliest occurrence of them as reported in the survey. Note that not all places had a year reported. This is the summary for those that did.
43 places were reported in the Dakota Territory, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Nebraska, Washington Territory and Wisconsin.
53 places were reported in California, Colorado, Dakota Territory, Illinois, Kansas, Nebraska, Oregon and Washington Territory.
66 places were reported in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma Territory, South Dakota, Utah, Virginia and Washington.
121 places were reported in Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, Virginia, Washington and Wisconsin.
110 places were reported in Arkansas, California, Colorado, Idaho, Illinois, Kansas, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin and Wyoming.
82 places were reported in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, Wyoming.
70 places were reported in Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin and Wyoming.
92 places were reported in Alabama, California, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New York, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin and Wyoming.
83 places were reported in Alaska Territory, Arizona, California, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Kansas, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, Virginia, Washington and Wisconsin.
80 places were reported in Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin and Wyoming.
96 places were reported in Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington and Wisconsin.
100 places were reported in Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, District of Columbia, Florida, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin and Wyoming.
105 places were reported in Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Territory of Guam, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming.
It took from 1872 until 2000 for all 50 states, Washington, DC and the Territory of Guam to be reported.
However, we didn't stop moving.
75 places were reported in Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Delaware, Florida, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, new Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin.
159 places were reported in Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin.
“Work makes life sweet.”
Germans from Russia Settlement Locations does not track occupations, but I was curious, so I asked the question: What was this ancestor's occupation?
About 61% of the occupations reported had to do with farming, ranching, agricultural labor and other services that support those enterprises. Also high on the list, but nowhere nearly as high, was work related to the railroads.
Below are all of the immigrant generation occupations reported, from Army serviceman to WPA worker:
Army, ash hauler, auto body shop owner, baker, blacksmith, boarding house operator, boilermaker, boilermaker's helper, bone setter, brass moulder, brass polisher, brewery maltster, brick layer, brick maker, bus driver, butcher, cabinet maker, canal man, carpenter, caulker, cement finisher, child, coal miner, construction, contractor, cream buyer, custom harvester, department store worker, distiller, electrician, engineer, factory owner, factory worker, farm implement salesman, farm laborer, farm worker (indentured), farm worker (sugar beets), farmer, farmer (cantaloupe), farmer (onions), farmer (pears), farmer (sugar beets), farmer (wheat), farmer ([his] wife but she did all the work), farmer's wife, fireman, fur trader, furrier, garbage hauler, grain merchant, grocer, homemaker, housekeeper, housewife, iron worker, janitor, laborer, laborer (migrant), laborer (paper mill), laundress, locksmith, longshoreman, machinist, maid, mason, master carpenter, medical doctor, miller, minister, mother, nanny, naval base worker, newspaper editor, operated a creamery, packing plant worker, painter, pastor, post office worker, preacher, railroad worker, ranch hand, rancher, restaurant owner, railroad worker, railroad (car repairer), railroad (road master), salesman, scavenger, school custodian, seamstress, servant, shoemaker, shopkeeper, silk weaver, soccer coach, stone mason, student, tailor, teacher, truck driver, wife, WPA worker.
Nearly every response to the survey indicated the ancestor's religion, and this information is attached to each generation listed in this data. A few stated that their immigrant ancestors converted to another religion once in the United States.
The breakdown of the religions reported were as follows: 74.2% Protestant (Baptist, Calvinist, Congregationalist, Lutheran, Methodist, Reformed, Separatist, Seventh-day Adventists), 21.1% Catholic (Roman Catholic and Revivalist Catholic), 4% Mennonite, 0.5% Jewish and 0.1% Orthodox.
The Protestant category further breaks down thusly: 86.4% Lutheran, 4.5% Reformed, 1.9% Baptist, 1.9% Congregationalist, 1.4% Seventh-day Adventist, 0.9% Methodist, 0.9% Protestant (non-specific), 0.7% German Congregational, 0.5% Calvinist, 0.2% Emmanuel Congregational, 0.2% Evangelical United Brethren, 0.2% First German Congregational and 0.2% Separatist.
Germans from Russia Settlement Locations also does not track surnames by location. The immigrant generation surnames, if they was provided in the response, are listed here. Original spellings and all spelling variations provided in the responses are included alphabetically.
Adam, Adler, Albrecht, Albrecht, Allerdings, Amen, Amend, Anschutz, Anschütz, Artes.
Bachemier, Bachmeier, Backus, Baer, Baesler, Bahs, Baier, Banek, Barbier ,Bath, Batt , Bauer, Baum, Baumstarck, Beahm, Becker, Bemke, Bender, Benzel, Berberich, Bergstrasser, Bergstrazer, Bernhardt, Berwing, Bettger, Betz, Beyer, Bickel, Bieber, Bieberdorf, Bietz, Billigmeier, Bissing, Bitz, Blillinger, Boehm, Boespflug, Boettcher , Bohm, Borth, Bosnak, Bossert, Bostrom, Bott, Bower, Brandt, Braun, Braun , Braunling, Braunstock, Brehm, Breit, Brethauer, Bretthauer, Brost, Brosz, Brotzmann, Brown, Brum, Bruning, Brunner, Buck, Buechler, Burckhard, Burckhardt, Burgard, Burghardt , Burkhard, Busch, Busick.
Christmann, Cymer, Czymer.
Dahlinger, Damsen , Daubert, David, Decker, Degand, Deibert, Deined, Deines, Delker, Dell, Denke ,Derr, Detzlaf, Detzlof, Dexheimer, Dietterle, Dietz, Dietzel, Dinkel, Dittenbier, Ditter, Dittus, Dockter, Doos, Dostert, Draut, Duchscher, Dukart, Dupper, Durr.
Eberhardt, Eberle, Eckerdt, Eckhardt, Eckroth, Ehle, Ehnisz, Ehresman, Eichmann, Eisemann, Eisenach, Elenberger, Engel, Englehardt, Ensminger, Erbacher, Eshiem, Euteneier.
Fabrizius, Fahn, Falk, Fandrch, Fauth, Fehrer, Feil, Felk, Felte, Fergin, Feser, Fiest, Fietz, Fink, Fischer, Fisher, Fleck, Flegler, Foos, Frank, Freund, Frick, Friedrich, Friehauf , Friesen, Frison, Fritzler, Froscheiser, Froshauer, Frosheiser, Funk, Fuss,
Gassman, Gauer, Geier, Geiger, Geis, Geist, Geringer, Germann, Gertz, Gette, Gienger, Ginther, Giske, Glatt, Goodman, Gorte, Goss, Gottfried, Graber, Graf, Granken , Grasmann, Groskopf, Gross, Grossman, Groth, Gruenemeyer, Grun, Guenther, Guthmiller, Gutmann, Guttmann.
Hafner, Hahn, Halle, Hammerling, Harding, Hardt, Hartman, Hartmann, Hartung, Haupt, Heffley, Heil, Heile, Hein, Heinrich, Heit, Helfenstein , Helzer, Hemmerling, Henkel, Henneberg, Hergenreter, Hergert, Herl, Herling , Herman, Herrmann, Hetterle, Heupel, Hilsendager, Himmelspach, Hins, Hintz, Hock, Hoff, Hofferber, Hoffman, Hoffmann, Hohloch, Holloch, Hollock, Holzer, Homburg, Hopp, Horg, Horst, Huber,Huff, Hügel, Hutmacher.
Jacob, Jacobs, Jacoby, Jäger, Jakel, Jantz, Jede, Jedig, Jesser, Jesswein, Job, Jobe, Johannes, Jung, Justus.
Kaiser, Kalka, Kammerer, Kapfenstein, Karlin, Karok, Kaufman, Kaufmann, Kauk, Kautzman, Keehn, Keil, Keim, Keller, Kelln, Kelln , Kelm, Kerbel, Kerber, Kessler, Keszler, Kiefel, Kindsvater, Kinzel, Kisling, Klein, Klinger, Klobertanz, Knaub, Kniss, Knittel, Knop, Knopfp, Koch, Koenig, Kohler, Kolewe, Kölln, Kopp, Korus, Kottke, Kraemer, Krause, Kravchenko (Кравченко), Krein, Krenkel, Kress, Krueger, Kubishta, Kuntz,
Lachman, Laemmle, Lauer, Lebsack, Lechman, Lehman, Leikam, Leippi, Leis, Leischner, Lennick, Lennick, Lenz, Leonhardt, Lerner, Lesmeister, Lesser, Leuse, Liese, Lieske, Linik, Liske, Littke, Loehning, Loos, Lorenz, Lust.
Maas, Mackling, Maier, Maier , Malsam, Mantei, Marker, Markus, Martin, Mastel, Mayer, Mehling, Meier, Meisner, Meissel, Merkel, Mertz, Messer, Mettler, Metzler, Michal, Mietz, Miller, Mischel, Moegling, Mohrlang, Montei, Moser, Mosser, Mueller, Muller, Mutschler.
Nab, Nabower, Nagel ,Nazarenus, Neher, Neiwert, Netz, Neubauer, Neuharth, Nicholas, Niederhaus, Nikolaus, Nilmeier, Nolde, Nuss.
Ochs ,Opp,Orend ,Oster,
Paul, Peil, Penner, Petrie, Pfaff, Pfaffenroth, Pfeifer, Pfeiff, Pfief, Pfister, Pietz, Pinekenstein, Pister, Pope, Popp, Preheim, Printz, Prinz.
Radke, Radtke, Rahm, Raimg, Rast, Rathke, Ratke, Rau, Rausch, Rauter, Redschlag, Rehm, Rehn, Reichel, Reidel, Reimann, Reimer, Reiner, Reiter, Reitz, Reitz, Renner , Rennich, Reub, Reuther, Richter, Rieber, Rienick, Ries, Riffel, Ring, Risling, Rittel, Rody, Roemig, Rohn, Roll, Roth, Rothenberger, Ruhl,R upp, Ryll.
Sack, Sacks, Sauerbrei, Sawadkzy, Sawadski, Sawatske, Sayler, Schadt, Schaeffer, Schafer, Schaffer, Schäffer, Schamber, Schauer, Schaupp, Schell, Scheller, Schelske, Scherer, Schillereff, Schilling, Schlagel, Schlegel, Schleicher, Schleining, Schlitt, Schlosser, Schmaltz, Schmalz, Schmidt,S chmidtke, Schmitz, Schmollinger, Schnabel, Schneider, Schneider, Schoenmann, Schoessler, Scholl, Schott, Schrag, Schreiner, Schroeter, Schultheis, Schultz, Schulz , Schumaier, Schutzler, Schwabauer, Schwabenland, Schwartz, Schweitz, Schwindt, Seewald, Seher, Seib, Seibert, Seifert, Sell, Senger, Siemens, Sievert, Siewert, Silbernagel, Simon, Sittner, Sitzman, Skaley, Socolofsky, Specht, Spomer, Sprecher, Springer, Staab, Stach, Staehle, Stang, Stappler, Stebner, Steffan, Steiner, Steinhauer, Steinmetz, Sterkel, Stickel, Stieb, Stirm, Stoebner, Stoehr, Stoll , Strackbein, Streck, Strecker, Stricker,S troh, Stromberger, Stumpf, Suko, Suppes.
Taron, Tessmann, Tetzlaff, Tetzloff, Thielmann, Thorwarth, Thust, Tiede, Tieszen, Toepfer, Traudt, Traut, Trautwein, Treber, Trick, Trippel, Tschritter.
Uhrich, Unterseher, Urbach, Utz.
Vetter, Videu, Voegele, Voeller, Volk, Vossler.
Wacker, Wagner, Wahl, Walder, Waldner, Walker, Wall, Walter, Waltner, Walz, Wangler, Warkentin, Warner, Washenfelder, Weber, Wegner, Weidderman, Weigandt, Weigel, Weikum, Weingardt, Weinmeister, Weis, Weisbeck, Weisgerber, Weiss, Well, Welsch, Wenninger, Werner, Werre, Wertmiller, Wiederspahn, Wiesendorf, Wildeman, Wilhelm, Will, Willmann, Winckler, Wink, Winkler, Wittig, Wock, Wolf, Wolfer, Wolff, Wolfram, Wollmann, Wunsch, Wutzke.
Zahn, Zawadzki, Zawadzky, Zeiler, Zeller, Zickert, Ziegler, Zimblemann, Zimmer, Zimmerman, Zitzer.
Cite This Page: Sandy Schilling Payne, “Survey Results,” last modified February 23, 2020, https://america.germansfromrussiasettlementlocations.org/the-survey/results.